Knowledge, skills and behaviour describe the input necessary to achieve the required result. The conversion of problems and challenges into results (the goal) demands a specific problem-solving ability. The degree of ability required is related to the job role.

Factors like communication, management skills and authority and responsibility determine the degree to which results are achieved.

For example, a human resources officer has to select a suitable candidate (the result) for a vacant position (problem). In order to do so, the officer has to be familiar with, amongst other things, the recruitment and selection policy and tools at their disposal, and how people ‘tick’ (their psychology). He or she must also have the ability to ask the right questions in an interview and to interpret the answers in the right way. The authority of the officer is decisive in the degree of influence he or she has on the selection of the best candidate for the vacant position. The role of this human resources officer is Specialist. He or she has to solve unique problems, such as, as here, the recruitment and selection of staff: an activity that doesn’t take place daily and for which there isn’t one prescribed solution, even if the general approach is known in theory.